The Seed Industry
|Crop||Price per bag||Size of bag|
How much does a bag of soy cost?
₦29,000.00 for 50 kilogram.
Recommendations for planting soybeans in December 2015 Soybeans have a lesser leaf area than most other grain crops due to their smaller plant size. A greater population is planted so that the maximum quantity of sunshine is absorbed. The small response soybeans exhibit to varied plant installations can be explained by their phenotypic plasticity, which allows them to produce more pods provided there is sufficient space.
At a high level of plant establishment, soy plants will have few branches, grow vertically, and produce pods high above the ground. With a reduction in plant population, the inner-row space between plants expands, and the plant develops more lateral branches and pods. Some lateral branches and pods will be produced near to the ground when plant densities are extremely low.
Some of the lateral branches will fall over and produce pods on the ground, so reducing the harvestable yield. Recommendations for institution Due to the variance in row lengths, tillage procedures, and planting dates, the recommendations for soybean establishment are highly variable and complicated.
- In average spring plantings in October, 25 to 50 plants per square metre produce the highest yields.
- In reality, the optimal establishment is 14 to 18 seeds per metre for 0.5 m rows, 22 to 26 seeds per metre for 0.76 m rows, 24 to 28 seeds per metre for 0.91 m rows, and 28 to 32 seeds per metre for 1.52 m rows.
On the basis of the intended planting date, plant population adjustments must be performed based on the interplay between the production capacity of the field, the phenotypic plasticity of the cultivar, and lodging. With earlier planting dates, cultivars prone to lodging or producing more lateral branches can be planted at a lower density.
- The opposite is true with a late planting date.
- Early-planted soybeans in high-potential fields tend to grow very abundantly.
- In such circumstances, the plant population can be diminished.
- This indicates that ultimate plant populations will range from 180,000 to 400,000 plants per hectare.
- The greater populations in narrower rows are the result of increased space in the rows and reduced interplant competition, which decreases the likelihood of thin stems and lodging.
Initial planting dates Early planting dates in the colder eastern producing region have a significant positive impact on yield, but this comes with increased risk. This season is characterized by frequent cold fronts that significantly reduce soil temperature.
- This prolongs the seed’s exposure to fungus in cold, damp circumstances, which might result in seedling withering.
- If you must plant in these conditions, you should increase the plant population by 15 to 25 percent to account for establishment losses, especially with no-till systems.
- If the planting date has be pushed back to late November or December owing to adverse weather conditions, the vegetative growth will be significantly stunted.
Smaller plants require more space to produce enough pods and are less likely to restrict the gap between rows. The plants cannot then fully use the available sunshine. For this reason, the plant density must be raised by 40 to 60 percent. The optimal solution would be to utilize narrower rows to allow the high plant establishment.
Plant population Accurate plant densities must be determined using seed amounts per hectare rather than seed mass. Because seed is supplied by weight, it is difficult to calculate seed requirements. Labels on seed packages are required to specify the quantity of seeds per kilogram. This may then be used to determine the relative number of seeds necessary.
The majority of planter calibration tables utilize relative data, hence the plant population should be considered approximate. The sole method for precisely calibrating planters is to count the quantity of seeds placed over a certain distance by the planter.
- Seed dimensions The seed sizes of various cultivars vary significantly.
- They will likely range from 5,000 to 8,000 seeds per kilogram.
- Some cultivars generate larger seeds than others, but environmental factors throughout the grain-filling stage have the greatest impact on seed size.
- During the grain-filling stage, if drought or another stressor is present, the seeds will be smaller than usual.
A good blooming season that results in an abundance of pods might also cause the seeds to be smaller. The converse is also possible. If proper germination occurs, the size of the seeds will not affect the crop’s production. It is not unusual for a single manufacturing unit to have a wide range of seed sizes.
- Planters that employ volumetric seed measuring must be routinely calibrated, especially if cultivars are changed.
- Damage to seeds The quantity of surviving seeds is always less than the amount sown.
- Certain seeds will not germinate.
- Prior to germination, illnesses, insects, and other causes destroy the seeds.
After emergence, herbicides, equipment, insects, rodents, diseases, and other factors damage certain seedlings. Vaccination also results in the destruction of seed. To compensate for losses, more seed should be sown than is intended for the ultimate plant population.
Depending on the procedures employed, the overall loss might reach forty percent. In computations, the value 20% should be utilized for practical reasons. The population of plants may be calculated using the following formula: Population of plants = (anticipated plant establishment) / (germination percentage x expected survival) Expected plant establishment equals the ultimate plant population that should exist in the field (240 000) Read the percentage of germination on the packaging label (90%) Unknown, however 80% is a usual estimate for soybeans.
Population of plants equals 240 000 / (0.89 x 0.8) = 333 333 seeds per hectare. Article contributed by Nico Barnard: Research Agronomist, Pannar Seed. For more information, please email. December 2015 publication. Section: Recommendations for Soybean Plant Establishment in Pula/Imvula
How much do soy seeds cost?
Zambia soya bean export values – The overall export values for soya beans in Zambia for the years 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 were US$ 3,564, US$ 45,133, US$ 3,700, and US$ 4,392 in US dollar thousand, respectively. Loading. The price range for Zambia Soya Beans in 2022 is about between US$ 0.47 and US$ 0.38 per kilogram or between US$ 0.21 and US$ 0.17 per pound (lb).